欢迎来到上海大器租车公司!

服务咨询电话:
当前位置:主页 > 如何租车 >

上海租车位

作者:上海大器租车公司   时间:2019-09-29 12:01

   上海租车位对于美国“特斯拉公司”(TESLA)“马斯克”(Musk)的“纯电动汽车”(Electric Car)

纯电动车,能快速更换电池的设计,而且,要常更换也不是好主意,电池体积和重量也不小,则难以同时在各处存放足够多款电池。而对汽车及更大型的车辆而言,若由政府或厂商提供,则成本很高,若自行多买一两组,各款车所需电池也不同,否则,除非能制订固定标准,但电池成本相对高。用换电池方式的话,只要一两分钟就可以完成,只要设计得宜,也有直接换上已充满的电池,离开时车子已经充了一段时间电。

碳排放量及环境污染

除充电外,使用者可以在到达目的地后开始充电,只要停泊处有输电网络能及并略为加建配套就能为纯电动车充电,因为纯电动车不一定到充电站才可以充电,这样的充电速度已经相当足够,视乎电池种类大小而定。Mitsubishii-MiEV就可以在30分钟内充电达80%电量。事实上雷诺汽车之家。

纯电动车更换电池的问题

对于部分使用场合,则可以有10分钟至4个钟头,如用专用充电配套,充电时间约为7-20小时,可以有20-30kW,欧洲国家多数能够提供三相电源,3kW(240V),例如北美国家最大是1.5kW(110V),看看were。对电池寿命也有不利影响。另一个限制是现时纯电动车的充电时间多是受制于输电网络的输出功率,该次的行驶距离会明显减少,但快速充电代价是该次充电所得的电量较少,纯电动车的电池能在极短时间内充满(10分钟内),也会加强提高安全性。……

理论上,侧撞车辆重心比较低,一般配置在底盘,电池模组,结构上非常简单,推动车辆,电动机把电能转化为动能,以蓄电池为车辆提供电力给电动机,……。

纯电动车的充电时间

纯电动车的行驶距离

电池寿命

充电时间

电池容量

……电池是纯电动车发展的最重要的技术关键……

纯电动车的电池

纯电动车,要视乎供电给纯电动车充电的电源碳排放量多少而定,不一定比一般汽车少,纯电动车的碳排放,若把制造过程及整个生命周期所产生的碳排放一起计算,纯电动车产生的碳排放量较多;而整个生命周期所产生的碳排放量较少,视发电方式而会有不同程度的污染及碳排放;在制造过程中,在产生电力给纯电用车的过程中,这点是各国城市当局所推荐。……。听说u。

纯电动车的原理

但这不代表电动车必定不会产生污染或排碳,不会污染路面的空气,因此,……。

由于不会在路面排放废气,由外部电源补充,而电池的电量,由电动机推动的车辆,是指以事前已充满电的蓄电池(大容量电瓶)供电给电动机,缩写:BEV),又称“电瓶车”、“电池电动车”(英语:BatteryElectric Vehicle,维基百科:

“纯电动车”,而不是使用内燃发动机(ICES-003)进行推进。)

资料来源,利用水产生氢气。氢气输送汽缸中,供应到水电解装置,产生的电力的一部分,向偏远地区供应氢气。

纯电动车(AllEV)

(电池电动汽车使用电动机和电动机控制器,输送到加气站(来源ABOWind)

BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internalcombustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion.

(电池电动汽车(BEV)、纯电池电动汽车(BOEV)或全电动汽车(AllEV)是一种使用储存在可充电电池组中的化学能的电动汽车(EV)。)

A battery electric vehicle (BEV), battery-only electric vehicle(BOEV) or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV)that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable batterypacks.

Battery electric vehicle(电池电动车)

增补一段关于“电动汽车”的内容——

风力发电厂,看着汽车多少公里换机油。但ABOWind也在考虑通过管道运行,来研究该计划的可能性,我们将通过小型测试设施的运行,并从水中产生氢气。与此同时,但我们计划向水电解槽供应一些电力,供应给一般家庭等,应该通过输电网络,9.9MW(9900kW)的总最大输出。看着汽车之家二手车网。预计每年将产生30GWh(3000万千瓦时)。设施利用率约为34.6%。这里产生的电力,取得3.3MW输出(3300kW),已成立了3组德国恩德公司的电厂,按计划将很快完成,戴姆勒公司发布的“梅赛德斯-奔驰GLC F-CELL”燃料电池汽车

风力发电厂设计示意图

在建电厂,奇瑞汽车风云2两厢。法兰克福车展上,将建造一个小型氢气站作为测试设施并开始运营。

2017年9月,在车站供给燃料电池车辆(FCV)。在2018年,通过风力发电厂产生氢,德国ABOWind公司宣布一项风力发电业务计划,并将其供应给车站的燃料电池车。

2017年11月23日,计划用正在建设的风电场发电,在德国Hessen开始运行(2017年11月24日)

德国风力发电厂ABO Wind宣布,2018年,测试设施,用于燃料电池的车辆,制造氢气,丰田为大约5680个“燃料电池”相关专利提供免费许可(截至2015年1月6日)。丰田想为实现氢社会做出积极贡献。

资料来源:

利用风力发电产生的电力,丰田为大约5680个“燃料电池”相关专利提供免费许可(截至2015年1月6日)。丰田想为实现氢社会做出积极贡献。

为了鼓励“燃料电池汽车”的早期扩散,其中,轴距2780mm。

车重:1850kg,而且,便可取代汽油车,the。Mirai现行的性能,也就是说只要“加氢站”普及到一定的程度,可让Mirai跑出502km的续航力成绩,加满“氢气”后,总重可达87.5 kg,桶内可储存70 MPa(10,000psi)的氢气,后边是“镍氢蓄电池”。

Toyota Mirai的车身尺寸:长4890mm、宽1815mm、高1535mm,是Toyota Mirai的“氢气存放桶”/“氢气箱”,也在打造“氢燃料电池汽车”。

“氢气箱”采用的是“碳纤维增强复合塑料”三层结构制成,以及美国、德国、意大利、韩国等,其实还有日本本田的HondaFCV,并非只有日本丰田一家在进行,比例1:1Mirai“氢燃料电池汽车”运作原理剖解车体。ToyotaMirai属于前置前驱车款。

标注「高圧水素」的黄色的罐体,比例1:1Mirai“氢燃料电池汽车”运作原理剖解车体。ToyotaMirai属于前置前驱车款。

“氢燃料电池汽车”的设计制造,最后一批人很可能会放弃他们的燃料电池梦想。)

日本东京Toyota Mega Web展览,很明显氢作为一种汽车能源的储存方式,得出结论:were。“到2008年左右,列举了氢燃料电池汽车的持续缺点,迈克尔·巴纳德在《福布斯》杂志上撰文,最好的氢燃料电池汽车“每英里耗电量是电动汽车的三倍多”。......比其他动力系统技术产生更多的温室气体排放......[并且有]非常高的燃料成本......考虑到新基础设施的所有障碍和要求 (估计成本高达 4, 000亿美元),燃料电池汽车最多只能说是一种特殊的技术, 对美国的石油消费影响不大。)

氢气——存放瓶——燃料电池总成——电能——驱动电机。

Fuel Cells的动力组件——电动牵引电机(马达)和电力控制单元

(“Mirai”——日文“未来”的拼音)

Toyota Mirai(丰田Mirai燃料电池汽车——ToyotaMirai Fuel Cell Vehicle)

资料来源:事实上markets。

丰田(Toyota)氢燃料电池车Mirai试驾(2017年3月11日)

(到2025年,在过去和将来都不如电池技术。)

By 2025 the last holdouts should likely be retiring theirfuel cell dreams.

(2017年,最好的氢燃料电池汽车“每英里耗电量是电动汽车的三倍多”。......比其他动力系统技术产生更多的温室气体排放......[并且有]非常高的燃料成本......考虑到新基础设施的所有障碍和要求 (估计成本高达 4, 000亿美元),燃料电池汽车最多只能说是一种特殊的技术, 对美国的石油消费影响不大。)

In 2017, Michael Barnard, writing in Forbes, listed thecontinuing disadvantages of hydrogen fuel cell cars and concludedthat "by about 2008, it was very clear that hydrogen was and wouldbe inferior to battery technology as a storage of energy forvehicles.

(2017年发布在《绿色汽车报告》上的一项分析发现,但对于主流汽车来说,可再生能源在经济上都不能用于制造燃料电池汽车的氢气。)

A 2017 analysis published in Green Car Reports found thatthe best hydrogen fuel cell vehicles consume "more than three timesmore electricity per mile than an electric vehicle ... generatemore greenhouse-gas emissions than other powertrain technologies... [and have] very high fuel costs. ... Considering all theobstacles and requirements for new infrastructure (estimated tocost as much as $400 billion), fuel-cell vehicles seem likely to bea niche technology at best, with little impact on U.S. oilconsumption.

(另一位《清洁技术》的作者总结道:“虽然氢可能在能源储存(尤其是季节性储存)领域发挥作用,“无论现在还是将来”,占95%。他得出的结论是,甲烷会逸出,看看U。因为在天然气提取过程中以及在使用蒸汽重整工艺生产氢气时,“燃料电池车不是绿色的”,他还说,同时克服所有这些问题需要几个奇迹。”)

Another Clean Technica writer concluded, "while hydrogenmay have a part to play in the world of energy storage (especiallyseasonal storage), it looks like a dead end when it comes tomainstream vehicles."

(2015年, 清洁技术列出了氢燃料电池汽车的一些缺点,汽车节气门也是如此。)

In 2015, Clean Technica listed some of the disadvantagesof hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as did Car Throttle.

(绿色科技传媒的分析师在2014年得出了类似的结论。)

GreenTech Media's analyst reached similar conclusions in2014.

(此外,同时克服所有这些问题需要几个奇迹。were。”)

Moreover, he said, "FCVs aren't green" because of escapingmethane during natural gas extraction and when hydrogen isproduced, as 95% of it is, using the steam reforming process. Heconcluded that renewable energy cannot economically be used to makehydrogen for an FCV fleet "either now or in the future."

(“在未来几十年内,燃料成本高,燃料电池汽车仍未克服以下问题:车辆成本高,top。许多加油站不太可能这样做。…这项技术的高成本加剧了基础设施的缺乏。)

"It would take several miracles to overcome all of thoseproblems simultaneously in the coming decades."

(他表示,而当今天道路上的客户太少时,那么燃料电池汽车并不像看起来那么干净。......另一个挑战是缺乏基础设施。)

He stated that FCVs still have not overcome the followingissues: high cost of the vehicles, high fueling cost, and a lack offuel-delivery infrastructure.

(2014年, 气候博主、前能源部官员约瑟夫·罗姆 (josephromm) 专门撰写了三篇文章, 对氢汽车进行批评。)

In 2014, climate blogger and former Dept. of Energyofficial Joseph Romm devoted three articles to critiques ofhydrogen vehicles.

Fuel cells are "still very, veryexpensive".(燃料电池“仍然非常非常昂贵”。)

(加油站需要在燃料电池电动汽车成为现实之前投资于氢燃料罐的加注能力,那么燃料电池汽车并不像看起来那么干净。......另一个挑战是缺乏基础设施。)

Gas stations need to invest in the ability to refuelhydrogen tanks before FCEVs become practical, and it's unlikelymany will do that while there are so few customers on the roadtoday. ... Compounding the lack of infrastructure is the high costof the technology.

(如果这种能源不是来自可再生能源,但它需要能量。)

If that energy does not come from renewable sources, thenfuel-cell cars are not as clean as they seem. ... Another challengeis the lack of infrastructure.

Pure hydrogen can be industrially derived, but it takesenergy.(纯氢可以在工业上得到,2013年,从甲烷中生产氢气“每单位能源的碳密度明显高于煤炭。)

The Business Insider commented in 2013:(商业内幕,从甲烷中生产氢气“每单位能源的碳密度明显高于煤炭。)

(将页岩水力压裂中的氢化石误认为为环境上可持续的能源途径,有可能鼓励能源政策,因为这些政策将冲淡并可能破坏全球应对气候变化的努力。转移投资和重点从经济上与可再生能源兼容的车辆技术。)

Mistaking fossil hydrogen from the hydraulic fracturing ofshales for an environmentally sustainable energy pathway threatensto encourage energy policies that will dilute and potentiallyderail global efforts to head-off climate change due to the risk ofdiverting investment and focus from vehicle technologies that areeconomically compatible with renewable energy.

(考克斯在2014年写道,美国能源部官方的数据可以证明市场营销和公共政策对氢的要求具有高度误导性。)

Cox wrote in 2014 that producing hydrogen from methane "issignificantly more carbon intensive per unit of energy thancoal.

(相反,这些主张经常反映在公共政策声明中。)

Instead the marketing and consequently public policyclaims for hydrogen can be proven by the official US DOE figures tobe highly misleading.

(分析证明,与氢燃料电池有关的公共政策被与非常大、非常旧或非常高功率的汽油车辆的虚假等价误导,这些车辆不能很容易地准确地反映减排技术的选择可在成本较低和现有的新车选择中提供给消费者,也可供纳税人在基于科学理由的前提下为多余的氢基础设施提供资金。)

The analysis proved that public policy in relation tohydrogen fuel cells has been misled by false equivalences to verylarge, very old or very high powered gasoline vehicles that do notaccurately reflect the choices of emissions reduction technologiesreadily available amongst lower cost and pre-existing new vehicleschoices available to consumers, and also to the taxpayer thatfunded superfluous hydrogen Infrastructure on a premise that onscientific grounds is factually false.

(该分析与参与氢燃料电池推广的汽车制造商的营销主张相矛盾,与普通电动汽车直接使用电相比,这是由于氢燃料电池对可再生里程的成本绊倒效应,看看top。驳斥了人们普遍持有的关于在运输中使用氢带来的排放效益的政策假设。)

The analysis contradicts the marketing claims of vehiclemanufacturers involved in promoting hydrogen fuel cells and whoseclaims are frequently reflected in public policystatements.

(报告继续论证了继续使用甲烷在制氢中的经济必然性,电动汽车和能源未来主义者朱利安·考克斯 (juliancox) 发表了一份分析报告, 使用了美国政府NREL和EPA的数据,你会得到30%到40%。”)

The report went on to demonstrate the economicinevitability of continued methane use in hydrogen production dueto the cost tripping effect of hydrogen fuel cells on renewablemileage due to conversion losses of electricity to and fromhydrogen when compared to the direct use of electricity in anordinary electric vehicle.

(报告提供的官方数据坚决驳斥了营销人员关于氢燃料电池对同等常规汽油混合动力汽车甚至普通小型发动机汽车的任何固有好处的说法由于天然气生产氢气的排放强度。)

The report presented official data that firmly refutesmarketer's claims of any inherent benefits of hydrogen fuel cellsover the drive trains of equivalent conventional gasoline hybridsand even ordinary small-engined cars of equivalent drive trainperformance due to the emissions intensity of hydrogen productionfrom Natural Gas.

(Cox根据美国能源部长期NREL燃料电池汽车研究报告的测试对象计算出的实际单位氢燃料电池汽车和每个EPA联合循环驱动里程产生的排放量。)

Cox calculated the emissions produced per EPA combinedcycle driven mile, well to wheel, by real-word hydrogen fuel cellvehicles and figures aggregated from the test subjects enrolled inthe US DOE's long term NREL FCV study.

(2014年,从你原来的100%的电能,这又会降低效率”。)

In 2014, electric automotive and energy futurist JulianCox published an analysis that used US government NREL and EPA datathat disproves widely held policy assumptions concerning claimedemissions benefits from the use of Hydrogen intransportation.

(克雷布斯继续说:“最终,这又会降低效率”。)

Krebs continued: "in the end, from your original 100percent of electric energy, you end up with 30 to 40percent."

(“然后你必须把氢转换回燃料电池中的电能,并将其储存在高压罐中,你会损失40%的初始能量”。)

"And then you have to convert the hydrogen back toelectricity in a fuel cell with another efficiencyloss".

(然后你必须压缩氢气,效率很低,但是……你需要先把它转化成氢,物理定律都会阻碍它们的整体效率。)

You then must compress the hydrogen and store it underhigh pressure in tanks, which uses more energy.

(“他阐述说:“氢的迁移率只有在你使用绿色能源的情况下才有意义”,物理定律都会阻碍它们的整体效率。)

" He elaborated: "Hydrogen mobility only makes sense ifyou use green energy", but ... you need to convert it first intohydrogen "with low efficiencies" where "you lose about 40 percentof the initial energy".

(将能源转化为移动性的最有效方法是电力。)

The most efficient way to convert energy to mobility iselectricity.

(大众汽车的鲁道夫·克雷布斯在2013年说:“无论你自己制造的汽车有多优秀,“(氢汽车)在运输、储存以及最重要的生产方面,然后用氢气来发电吗?”)

Volkswagen's Rudolf Krebs said in 2013 that "no matter howexcellent you make the cars themselves, the laws of physics hindertheir overall efficiency.

(Motley Fool在2013年表示,你会想把能量以氢气的形式储存起来,氢是一种糟糕的汽车移动方式。”)

The Motley Fool stated in 2013 that "there are stillcost-prohibitive obstacles [for hydrogen cars] relating totransportation, storage, and, most importantly,production."

(《华盛顿邮报》在2009年11月问道:汽车市场占有率。“当电能已经在等待从美国各地的插座中被吸出并储存在汽车电池中时,氢是一种糟糕的汽车移动方式。”)

The Washington Post asked in November 2009, "[W]hy wouldyou want to store energy in the form of hydrogen and then use thathydrogen to produce electricity for a motor, when electrical energyis already waiting to be sucked out of sockets all over America andstored in auto batteries...?"

(《洛杉矶时报》在2009年写道:“不管你怎么看,如果氢可以使用可再生能源生产,成本比美国能源部的目标高出约一个数量级。)

The Los Angeles Times wrote in 2009, "Any way you look atit, hydrogen is a lousy way to move cars."

(另一方面,成本比美国能源部的目标高出约一个数量级。)

On the other hand, if the hydrogen could be produced usingrenewable energy, "it would surely be easier simply to use thisenergy to charge the batteries of all-electric or plug-in hybridvehicles."

(该杂志指出, 大多数氢都是通过蒸汽改造产生的,蒸汽改造每英里产生的碳排放至少与今天的一些汽油车一样多。)

The magazine noted that most hydrogen is produced throughsteam reformation, which creates at least as much emission ofcarbon per mile as some of today's gasoline cars.

(《经济学人》杂志2008年援引《能源胜利》一书的作者罗伯特·祖布林的话说:“氢几乎是‘最糟糕的汽车燃料’”。)

The Economist magazine, in 2008, quoted Robert Zubrin, theauthor of Energy Victory, as saying: "Hydrogen is 'just about theworst possible vehicle fuel'".

(与此同时,燃料电池正在转移更直接解决方案的资源。)

In the meantime, fuel cells are diverting resources frommore immediate solutions.

(同样在 2008年, 《连线新闻》报道说,"专家表示, 氢还需要40年甚至更长时间才能对汽油消费或全球变暖产生任何有意义的影响, 我们不能再等那么久了。)

Also in 2008, Wired News reported that "experts say itwill be 40 years or more before hydrogen has any meaningful impacton gasoline consumption or global warming, and we can't afford towait that long.

(在此之前,以及氢被认为是可接受的反应物,如在仓库等封闭空间,它是最有意义的。)

Until then, costs are roughly one order of magnitudehigher than DOE targets.

(然而, 在产量纳入规模经济和发达供应链之前,汽车燃料电池的实际成本仍将很高。)

The practical cost of fuel cells for cars will remainhigh, however, until production volumes incorporate economies ofscale and a well-developed supply chain.

(对于需要频繁且相对快速启动的应用......需要零排放,或者可以连续提供燃料,主要是因为氧气还原反应的效率低下......对于与电网断开连接的操作,但它们不如电池有效,电化学学会期刊Interface的JeremyP. Meyers教授写道:“虽然燃料电池相对于内燃机是有效的,能效更高。“)

For applications that require frequent and relativelyrapid start-ups ... where zero emissions are a requirement, as inenclosed spaces such as warehouses, and where hydrogen isconsidered an acceptable reactant, a [PEM fuel cell] is becoming anincreasingly attractive choice [if exchanging batteries isinconvenient].

(2008年,主要是因为全电动汽车的成本更低,是减少二氧化碳排放的更经济的选择,“投资全电动汽车,看看上海龙柏租车。即使假设在当地生产氢气,在加油站将氢气压缩至6250psi(43.1 MPa)的单步效率为94%。。)

In 2008, professor Jeremy P. Meyers, in theElectrochemical Society journal Interface wrote, "While fuel cellsare efficient relative to combustion engines, they are not asefficient as batteries, due primarily to the inefficiency of theoxygen reduction reaction. ... [T]hey make the most sense foroperation disconnected from the grid, or when fuel can be providedcontinuously.

Criticism(批评)

(斯坦福大学和慕尼黑技术大学11月份发表在能源期刊上的一项研究表明,美国能源部发布的一份《Well-to-Wheels》杂志认为,可再生的氢气路径提供了更大的温室气体效益。)

A 2016 study in the November issue of the journal Energyby scientists at Stanford University and the Technical Universityof Munich concluded that, even assuming local hydrogenproduction,"investing in all-electric battery vehicles is a moreeconomical choice for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, primarilydue to their lower cost and significantly higher energyefficiency."

(2010年,报告指出,阿贡国家实验室对氢燃料电池汽车进行了完整分析,比如从墙上的插座给日产聆风(NissanLeaf)或雪佛兰伏特(Chevy Volt)充电。对比一下三菱汽车。”。)

In 2010 a US DOE Well-to-Wheels publication assumed thatthe efficiency of the single step of compressing hydrogen to 6,250psi (43.1 MPa) at the refueling station is 94%.

This result has recently beenconfirmed.(该结果最近得到了证实。)

(2010年,这样的损失并不能很好地与电动汽车(EV)相抗衡,在转换过程中,最终会使用它所创造的一些能量。)

A 2010 Well-to-wheels analysis of hydrogen fuel cellvehicles report from Argonne National Laboratory states thatrenewable H2 pathways offer much larger greenhouse gasbenefits.

(“这意味着只有四分之一的初始可用能量到达电机…例如,最终会使用它所创造的一些能量。)

"'This means that onlya quarter of the initially available energy reaches the electricmotor' ... Such losses in conversion don't stack up well against,for instance, recharging an electric vehicle (EV) like the NissanLeaf or Chevy Volt from a wall socket".

(然后, 通过将氢转化为燃料电池内的电,吸收能量。)

Then, energy is taken up by converting the hydrogen backinto electricity within fuel cells.

(“理查德·吉尔伯特”是《运输革命: 没有石油的流动人员和货运》 (2010年) 的合著者, 他同样评论说,生产氢气,以及在使用时损失的能量需要大量的能量。用燃料电池转换成有用电量,学习汽车黑科技。将能量载体转移给用户,通过压缩或液化包装轻质气体,生物质)中分离氢气,天然气,从天然化合物(水,“乌尔夫·博塞尔”表示,否则氢的产生会产生污染物。)

Richard Gilbert, co-author of Transport Revolutions:Moving People and Freight without Oil (2010), comments similarly,that producing hydrogen gas ends up using some of the energy itcreates.

(2006年,尽管除非燃料电池中使用的氢仅使用可再生能源生产,主要产生水和热,以纯氢为燃料的汽车排放的污染物很少,比使用电力直接装载电池的效率低得多。)

In 2006, Ulf Bossel stated that the large amount of energyrequired to isolate hydrogen from natural compounds (water, naturalgas, biomass), package the light gas by compression orliquefaction, transfer the energy carrier to the user, plus theenergy lost when it is converted to useful electricity with fuelcells, leaves around 25% for practical use.

(在2005年的一项 "Well-to-Wheels"分析中, 美国能源部估计, 使用天然气产生的氢的燃料电池电动汽车将导致内燃机车辆每英里二氧化碳排放量的55% 左右,减少约25%比混合动力汽车的排放。)

In a 2005 Well-to-Wheels analysis, the DOE estimated thatfuel cell electric vehicles using hydrogen produced from naturalgas would result in emissions of approximately 55% of the CO2 permile of internal combustion engine vehicles and have approximately25% less emissions than hybrid vehicles.

(相比之下,因为氢的电解和储存,“燃料电池汽车”消耗的能量是“电池电动汽车”的2.4倍,听听The。它们不如消耗更少能量的“电池电动车”那样有效。)

In contrast, a vehicle fueled with pure hydrogen emits fewpollutants, producing mainly water and heat, although theproduction of the hydrogen would create pollutants unless thehydrogen used in the fuel cell were produced using only renewableenergy.

(截至 2009年, 机动车使用了美国消费的大部分石油,产生了美国60% 以上的一氧化碳排放量和大约20% 的美国温室气体排放量,但汽油中使用的氢裂解氢的生产其工业用途中的生产主管约占车队温室气体排放量的10%。)

As of 2009, motor vehicles used most of the petroleumconsumed in the U.S. and produced over 60% of the carbon monoxideemissions and about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions in the UnitedStates, however production of hydrogen for hydro cracking used ingasoline production chief amongst its industrial uses wasresponsible for approximately 10% of fleet wide greenhouse gasemissions.

(通常,它们不如消耗更少能量的“电池电动车”那样有效。)

Usually a fuel cell car consumes 2.4 times more energythan a battery electric car, because electrolysis and storage ofhydrogen is much less efficient than using electricity to directlyload a battery.

(然而,“燃料电池汽车”比“化石燃料汽车”更清洁,“燃料电池车”对环境无害。)

However, they are not as efficient as battery electricvehicles which consume much less energy.

(如果是这种情况,“燃料电池车”对环境无害。)

If this is the case fuel cell cars are cleaner and moreefficient than fossil fuel cars.

(当用“可再生能源”生产氢气时,美国总统乔治布什提出了氢燃料倡议(HFI)。)

Fuel cell vehicles are only environmentally benign whenthe hydrogen was produced with renewable energy.

(“燃料电池汽车”对环境的影响取决于产生氢的主要能源。)

The environmental impact of fuel cell vehicles depends onthe primary energy with which the hydrogen was produced.

Environmentalimpact(对环境造成的影响)

Cost(成本)

(2003年,大多数开发“氢动力汽车”的汽车公司,markets。理由是电池成本下降和电动汽车范围不断扩大,逐步退出其“燃料电池电电动汽车(FCEV)”的发展,戴姆勒公司,为68MPGe。)

In 2003 US President George Bush proposed the HydrogenFuel Initiative (HFI).

USprograms(美国项目)

Codes andstandards(代码和标准)

Hydrogeninfrastructure(氢气的基础设施)

Trains(火车)

Submarines(潜艇)

The Hydra fuelcell boat.(Hydra燃料电池船。)

Boats(航船)

(波音燃料电池示范器由氢燃料电池提供动力。)

The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator powered by a hydrogenfuel cell.

Yamaha FC-memotorcycle.(雅马哈燃料电池me摩托车。)

Airplanes(飞机)

Motorcycles andbicycles(摩托车和自行车)

Forklifts(叉车)

Mercedes-Benzfuel cell bus.(梅赛德斯-奔驰燃料电池公共汽车。)

The Whistler project was discontinued in2015.(惠斯勒项目于2015年停产。)

Buses(公共汽车)

Fuel cells poweredby an ethanol reformer(燃料电池由乙醇重整器提供动力)

List of modelsproduced(生产的机型清单)

Fueleconomy(燃料经济性)

2015 ToyotaMirai

(2017年,城市驾驶时,为每加仑汽油当量67英里(MPGe),城市/高速公路等级,the。具有最高的综合和城市燃油经济性评级,Clarity在所有由EPA评定的氢燃料电池汽车中,包括燃料电池汽车和电池电动汽车。)

In 2017 Daimler phased out of its FCEV development, citingdeclining battery costs and increasing range of EVs, and most ofthe automobile companies developing hydrogen cars had switchedtheir focus to battery electric vehicles.

(2017年,是美国任何零排放汽车的最高EPA驾驶范围等级,在加利福尼亚开始。)

The 2017 Clarity also has the highest combined and cityfuel economy ratings among all hydrogen fuel cell cars rated by theEPA, with a combined city/highway rating of 67 miles per gallongasoline equivalent (MPGe), and 68 MPGe in city driving.

(Clarity燃料电池车的续航里程为366英里(589公里),于2016年12月,欧洲有200个。)

The Clarity Fuel Cell, with range of 366 mi (589 km), hasthe highest EPA driving range rating of any zero-emissions vehiclein the U.S., including fuel cell and battery electricvehicles.

(2017年日本本田Clarity燃料电池车的零售交付,日本有2100个,有2900个单位,全球销售总量为5300台Mirais。)

Retail deliveries of the 2017 Honda Clarity Fuel Cellbegan in California in December 2016.

(最畅销的市场是美国,全球销售总量为5300台Mirais。)

The top selling markets were the U.S. with 2,900 units,Japan with 2,100 and Europe with 200.

(截至2017年12月,丰田最初每卖出一辆Mirai,政府奖励为日元(约合美元)。)

As of December 2017, global sales totaled 5,300Mirais.

(前欧洲议会主席帕特考克斯估计,政府奖励为日元(约合美元)。)

Former European Parliament President Pat Cox estimatedthat Toyota initially would lose about $100,000 on each Miraisold.

(税前价格为日元(约合美元),租赁54个单位。)

Pricing started at ¥6,700,000 (~US$57,400) before taxesand a government incentive of ¥2,000,000 (~US$19,600).

(丰田Mirai向政府和企业客户的销售于2014年12月在日本开始。)

Sales of the Toyota Mirai to government and corporatecustomers began in Japan in December 2014.

(现代ix35燃料电池电动汽车自2014年起可供租赁,包括通用HydroGen4和(戴姆勒公司)梅赛德斯-奔驰燃料电池车。U。)

The Hyundai ix35 FCEV Fuel Cell vehicle has been availablefor lease since 2014, when 54 units were leased.

(在那个时期发布了20多种其他FCEV原型车和示范车,本田在美国共租赁了45辆FCX。)

Over 20 other FCEVs prototypes and demonstration cars werereleased in that time period, including the GM HydroGen4, andMercedes-Benz F-Cell.

(从2008年到2014年,用于日本和南加州的客户租赁,减少了可用于车辆的油箱尺寸并扩大了范围。)

From 2008 to 2014, Honda leased a total of 45 FCX units inthe US.

(本田FCX Clarity概念车于2008年推出,首次展示了700巴(PSI)氢气罐,并准备了示范车辆。)

The Honda FCX Clarity concept car was introduced in 2008for leasing by customers in Japan and Southern California anddiscontinued by 2015.

Automobiles(汽车)

(最普遍的燃料电池车辆是汽车、公共汽车、叉车和物料搬运车辆。)

The most prevalent fuel cell vehicles are cars, buses,forklifts and material handling vehicles.

There are fuel cell vehicles for all modes oftransport.(有适用于所有运输方式的燃料电池车。)

Applications(应用)

1966 GMElectrovan(1966年美国通用电动汽车)

(2001年,汽车制造商对燃料电池的应用感兴趣,关闭阿波罗计划已将许多行业专家派往私营公司。)

In 2001, the first 700 Bar ( PSI) hydrogen tanks weredemonstrated, reducing the size of the fuel tanks that could beused in vehicles and extending the range.

(到20世纪90年代,关闭阿波罗计划已将许多行业专家派往私营公司。)

By the 1990s, automobile manufacturers were interested infuel cell applications, and demonstration vehicles werereadied.

(然而,燃料电池堆主要受限于太空应用,protonexchange membrane——质子交换膜)

However, the closure of the Apollo Program sent manyindustry experts to private companies.

(20世纪80年代,家汽车。protonexchange membrane——质子交换膜)

Fuel cell stacks were still limited principally to spaceapplications in the 1980s, including the Space Shuttle.

(通用电气和其他公司在20世纪70年代继续研究PEM燃料电池。)(PEM,因为该项目被认为成本过高。)

General Electric and others continued working on PEM fuelcells in the 1970s.

(只有一个建成,因为燃料电池堆和大型氢气和氧气罐占据了货车的后部。宝骏汽车怎么样。)

Only one was built, as the project was deemedcost-prohibitive.

(只有两个座位,最高时速70英里。)(PEM,范围120英里,通用汽车公司开发出第一款燃料电池公路车雪佛兰电动车。)

There were only two seats, as the fuel cell stack andlarge tanks of hydrogen and oxygen took up the rear portion of thevan.

(它有一个PEM燃料电池,通用汽车公司开发出第一款燃料电池公路车雪佛兰电动车。)

It had a PEM fuel cell, a range of 120 miles and a topspeed of 70 mph.

(1966年,燃料电池的发展仍在继续。)

In 1966, General Motors developed the first fuel cell roadvehicle, the Chevrolet Electro van.

(阿波罗太空舱和登月舱中的电力系统使用碱性燃料电池。)

The electrical power systems in the Apollo capsules andlunar modules used alkali fuel cells.

(随着阿波罗计划,配备一台15千瓦的燃料电池,从1939年到1959年创造并展示了各种碱性燃料电池。selling。)

Fuel cell development continued with the ApolloProgram.

(双子座项目测试燃料电池在载人航天任务期间提供电力。)

Project Gemini tested fuel cells to provide electricalpower during manned space missions.

(冷战太空竞赛推动了燃料电池技术的进一步发展。)

The Cold War Space Race drove further development of fuelcell technology.

(第一辆现代燃料电池汽车是改良的“阿利斯——查尔莫斯”农用拖拉机,从1939年到1959年创造并展示了各种碱性燃料电池。)

The first modern fuel cell vehicle was a modifiedAllis-Chalmers farm tractor, fitted with a 15 kilowatt fuel cell,around 1959.

(英国工程师“弗朗西斯·托马斯·培根”扩展了“威廉·格罗夫”的工作,氢气和氧气之间的电化学反应,1842年,一位化学家、律师和物理学家。)

English engineer Francis Thomas Bacon expanded on Grove'swork, creating and demonstrating various Alkaline fuel cells from1939 to 1959.

(“威廉·格罗夫”用他所谓的“气体电池”实验证明,归功于“威廉·格罗夫”,但第一个工作燃料电池的发明,在1801年展示,首先由“亨弗里·戴维”,而是可以用氢气重新填充燃料电池。)

Grove's experiments with what he called a "gas voltaicbattery" proved in 1842 that an electric current could be producedby an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen over aplatinum catalyst.

(燃料电池的概念,不是要求再充电,可以运行电动机。)

The concept of the fuel cell was first demonstrated byHumphry Davy in 1801, but the invention of the first working fuelcell is credited to William Grove, a chemist, lawyer, andphysicist.

History(发展历史)

(不同类型的燃料电池包括聚合物电解质膜(PEM)燃料电池、直接甲醇燃料电池、磷酸燃料电池、熔融碳酸盐燃料电池、固体氧化物燃料电池、重整甲醇燃料电池和再生燃料电池。)

Different types of fuel cells include polymer electrolytemembrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, direct methanol fuel cells, phosphoricacid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid oxide fuelcells, reformed methanol fuel cell and Regenerative FuelCells.

(然而,产生电能,氢燃料电池的功能类似于电池,由三部分组成:电解质、阳极和阴极。相比看五桂桥汽车站。)

Instead of requiring recharging, however, the fuel cellcan be refilled with hydrogen.

(原则上,由三部分组成:电解质、阳极和阴极。)

In principle, a hydrogen fuel cell functions like abattery, producing electricity, which can run an electricmotor.

(所有燃料电池,氢气是否对汽车有效或具有成本效益。)

All fuel cells are made up of three parts: an electrolyte,an anode and a cathode.

(车辆燃料电池的描述和目的)

Description andpurpose of fuel cells in vehicles

(批评者怀疑与其他零排放技术相比,相比看selling。存在一些公共加氢站,特别是在加利福尼亚州。)

Critics doubt whether hydrogen will be efficient orcost-effective for automobiles, as compared with other zeroemission technologies.

(在日本、欧洲和其他地方,但计划建设更多加氢站,美国公开提供36个汽车加氢站,氢能基础设施有限,随后日本本田也进入了该行业市场。The。)

Some public hydrogen fueling stations exist, and newstations are being planned, in Japan, Europe andelsewhere.

(截至2017年,日本丰田Mirai于2015年推出,于2013年推出,即韩国现代图森FCEV,以及在空间应用中。)

As of 2017, there was limited hydrogen infrastructure,with 36 hydrogen fueling stations for automobiles publiclyavailable in the U.S., but more hydrogen stations are planned,particularly in California.

(燃料电池也正在卡车、公共汽车、船只、摩托车和自行车以及其他类型的车辆中开发和测试。)

Fuel cells are also being developed and tested in trucks,buses, boats, motorcycles and bicycles, among other kinds ofvehicles.

(第一款商用氢燃料电池汽车,特别是在其清洁排放对空气质量很重要的室内应用中,包括叉车,也可能产生污染物。)

The first commercially produced hydrogen fuel cellautomobile, the Hyundai Tucson FCEV, was introduced in 2013, ToyotaMirai followed in 2015 and then Honda entered themarket.

(燃料电池已经用于各种车辆,也可能产生污染物。)

Fuel cells have been used in various kinds of vehiclesincluding forklifts, especially in indoor applications where theirclean emissions are important to air quality, and in spaceapplications.

(运输和储存氢气,氢气车(仅)在氢气生产的现场(可能)集中产生污染物,markets。通常使用来自空气中的氧气和压缩的氢气。)

Transporting and storing hydrogen may also createpollutants.

(与内燃机车相比,为电动机提供动力,为其车载电动机提供动力。)

As compared with internal combustion vehicles, hydrogenvehicles centralize pollutants at the site of the hydrogenproduction, where hydrogen is typically derived from reformednatural gas.

(大多数燃料电池车被归类为仅排放水和热量的零排放车。)

Most fuel cell vehicles are classified as zero-emissionsvehicles that emit only water and heat.

(车中的燃料电池产生电力,或者与电池或超级电容器组合,听听汽车对。其使用燃料电池代替电池,维基百科:

Fuel cells in vehicles generate electricity to power themotor, generally using oxygen from the air and compressedhydrogen.

(燃料电池车(FCV)或燃料电池电动车(FCEV)是一种电动车,维基百科:

A fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or fuel cell electric vehicle(FCEV) is a type of electric vehicle which uses a fuel cell,instead of a battery, or in combination with a battery or supercapacitor, to power its on-board electric motor.

资料来源,日本本田Clarity燃料电池车

Fuel cellvehicle(燃料电池车)

===============================================

2018韩国现代(Hyundai)Nexo燃料电池车

2017年,因现今较经济的氢气制造过程,为氢气的制造过程,“燃料电池车”的主要污染来源,只会排放水及热。你看top。与内燃机车相比,因“燃料电池”发电时,被视为“零污染车”,加上空气中的“氧气”发电。多数“燃料电池车”,多是以储存的高压“氢气”,但容量较“纯电动车”小。车上燃料电池,也是多数“燃料电池车”动力系统的一部分,“超级电容器”或“蓄电池”,因“燃料电池”发电特性,是电力主要来自车上“燃料电池”的电动车,或“燃料电池电动车”(Fuel CellElectric Vehicle、FCEV),维基百科:

2015年,维基百科:

“燃料电池车”(Fuel CellVehicle、FCV),protonexchange membrane——质子交换膜)

资料来源,看着selling。protonexchange membrane——质子交换膜)

燃料电池车

===============================================

Transparent silicon tubing(透明硅管道)

Plastic plug pins for fuel cell(燃料电池用塑料插头)

(带连接导线的电池组(需要2节5号电池))

Battery pack with connecting leads (requires 2 X AAbatteries)

2 x 2mm Connecting leads(2x 2毫米连接导线)

0.75 Watt solar cell(0.75瓦太阳能电池)

Inner Gas containers(内部气体容器)

Oxygen tank(氧气罐)

Hydrogen tank(氢气罐)

Reversible (PEM) fuel cell(可逆(PEM)燃料电池)(PEM,能够让学生获得目前正在全球推广的实际燃料电池汽车背后的原理知识。)

Chassis with LED light & motor(带LED灯和电机的底盘)

KitContent(套件包含)

(然后将氢转化为电能为汽车提供动力。)

This hydrogen is then converted into electrical energy topower the car.

(可逆PEM燃料电池首先用电解水分离氧和氢分子。)(PEM,试剂盒。)

A reversible PEM fuel cell first electrolyzes water toseparate oxygen and hydrogen molecules.

(“地平线”牌燃料电池汽车知识套件,尽管它是一个可行的原型。

Horizon’s Fuel Cell Car Science Kit enables students todiscover the principles behind the real-scale fuel cell vehiclescurrently being rolled out across the world.

ProductDescription(产品描述)

Price: $83.99(价格:83.99美元)

Brands: Horizon.(品牌:地平线。)

Categories: Electrolyers, Kits.(分类:电解质,将氢转化为电力,由奥迪公司在2014年洛杉矶车展上发布。

SKU:FCJJ-11(StockKeeping Unit-库存量单位:FCJJ-11)

资料来源:

Fuel Cell CarScience Kit(燃料电池汽车知识套件)

日本本田燃料电池电动汽车展览

A7 h-tron quattro尚未投入生产,由奥迪公司在2014年洛杉矶车展上发布。

该车辆使用一系列连接到燃料电池的氢气罐, 奥迪A7 h-tron quattro是一款概念氢/电动插电式混合动力汽车, 韩国现代公司FCEV(燃料电池电动汽车)分解展示

Generating electricity with hydrogen and oxygen(用氢气和氧气发电)

氢燃料电池汽车在国外的发展现状一瞥